Calendar in a complete Year - by Regions
In this month, the rains stop and the chill strikes. With the
stopping of the rains, the flow of rivers and streams has reduced little by little in such
a way that the flooded lowlands has receded and the wild fauna began to move and
concentrate around the tidelands.
The lowering in the flow of many rivers allows the gallery forests to be more
easily explored, making that many animal species move into it.
The Llano -
The Cedar, tree of great
importance because of its valued wood, is flowering.
The Ceiba begins to
flower. In the Llano it forms small oases of forests dispersed throughout the savanna.
They are also found in gallery forests.
Around this time, Iguanas
are very busy, digging subterranean chambers in the sand, which they will use later on to
lay their eggs.
At night you may find the
Yellowheaded Sidenecks laying their eggs in the beaches and banks of sand of the great
rivers, as well as the fox, sniffing any nest to unbury the eggs and swallow them.
In the low Llanos of Apure
State, the Llano's Sideneck is courting.
In the bodies of water
close to their nests, Jabirus can be seen feeding with their young.
Around these days, the
inhabitants of the Llano talk about "rolls of snakes", which is their
interpretation of the mating of Anacondas, the largest species of boa in the world.
Tortoise is nesting. This takes place mainly in gallery forests.
As the waters recede and
the flow of the rivers decreases, river dolphins, electric eels and stingrays, which have
remained trapped in the lagoons and rivers, can be frequently observed.
The Orinoco Goose mates at
On the sandy beaches that
have been left exposed by the receding waters, the Orinoco Crocodile builds its nest. This
species is endemic to the basin of this river.
January is when most of
the young of the Crabeating Fox are born. This coincides with the abundance of prey
brought about by the birth of several species of small reptiles.
Between the mouths of the
Apure and Meta rivers, in the low Llanos, the month ends with groups of Orinoco River
Turtles sunning themselves on the beaches.
The Herons begin to
disperse throughout the different bodies of water. They have remained in large flocks with
their young until the end of the rainy season.
The Capped Herons are
nesting. These birds are not easily seen because they prefer to remain hidden in the
The Guazuma Tree is
flowering. Soon the fruit will come, and with them many animals, including the Whitetailed
Deer which come to the foot of the tree to eat their favorite food.
Llano - February
is the month to watch the birds of the forests that are adjacent with the moor. Early in the
morning and before the sun rays rise the temperature, In the plains, in the basin of the Orinoco,
the reduction of the levels of the water bodies leaves great beaches uncovered, that allows
the turtles of the Podocnemis gender to use them as their spawn place. In other places the
reptiles begin to markand defend territory, due to the proximity of themating period.
fauna movements become more noticeable, besides the accumulation of waters to locate those
resources that form their diet. On the other hand, in many high mountain areas the weather
is still relatively humid , due to the ascent and condensation of the air masses that rise
from the lowlands and favor the forming of mixed bird flocks to locate their nourishing
Everyday at dawn, great
flocks of Barn Swallows move over the bodies of water hunting insects. These groups may
get to form hundreds of individuals in few square meters, while on the other hand,
thousands of Brown Ibis take off from their sleeping places towards the flooding Savannah
to be dispersed in the shallow lagoons.
The Orinoco Goose and the
Little Bittern move with their pigeons throughout the borders of canals and rivers of the
Savannah. In the first ones, the pigeons have already changed their plumage, while the
seconds still have their immature plumage.
Thousands of Whistling
Ducks concentrate, together with hundreds of individuals of the BlueWinged Teal in the
bodies of water. These last ones are migratory from North America and they have a faster
flapping than the first ones.
concentrates around scarce bodies of water.
This is the time which
birds of prey choose for building their nests and breeding, when mortality among fish,
birds and small mammals caused by the drought, offers easy prey for adults and young
Parrots and Macaws begin
the search for a place to build their nests, usually in a hole of a tree. Many pairs are
unable to breed due to a lack of suitable nesting sites.
The Llano's Sideneck digs
holes in lowlands to lay eggs.
Caymans announce their
courtship period with ascending and rigid movements of the head and tail.
The Bronze Shower Senna
Anacondas move from puddle
to puddle escaping the drought.
The Oak, imposing with its
beautiful silhouette and reddish wood, flowers this month. And it must be very timid
because its flowering season lasts but a moment, from ten to fifteen days.
is the peak month of what is known in the plains as "summer". Throughout this
period scarce precipitation is registered all along the country, which forces to an intense
defoliation of the vegetable species including those in the cloudy forest. That leaf carpet
determines a greater concentration of bugs on the floor, because in the canopy the excess of
light and radiation do not allow the development of a rich life.
In the whole Venezuela the fauna restricts its activities to the beginning
of the morning, ending of the afternoon or to the night to avoid the high temperatures that
are produced during noon.
The fruit of the
Cannonball Tree, already ripe, begin to fall piling up at the foot of the trees.
The Orinoco River Turtle
lays its eggs along the sandy beaches of the Orinoco river.
The babies of the
Yellowheaded Sidenecks hatch. They are very similar to the Llano's Sideneck but are
recognized by lighter spots on the head.
The Saman is in bloom.
This tree, generous in shade and coolness, is the symbol of the Llano.
The Shower of Gold is in
bloom, and if the beauty of its flowers was not enough, it is frequented by many
The "Madre de
Cacao" begins to flower.
In the higher parts of the
Llano, where the water does not reach, the Cedar is in bloom.
The Copernicia Palm, on
the contrary, is ending its flowering season. This palm is typical of the low areas which
are covered by water during the rainy season.
The Pink Poui, abundant in
the deciduous forests of the Llano, is in bloom.
Two species of Jacaranda
are in bloom. Their typical purple flowers color the landscape.
Caymans move around
searching for the few remaining bodies of water. Sometimes, if they cannot find any, they
bury themselves in the mud to avoid dehydration and stay there several days.
Racoons appear at night
searching for prey with their young.
is the end of the drought. Many couples of parrots and macaws must be taking care of the
hole where they will nest in the up coming season for two months already. However, in this
month, the custody of this hole is done with more insistence due to the proximity of the
reproductive period.The flows of the rivers and streams are in their lowest level,
forcing many fish to go the surface. This situation is profited by the Cranes the Gray
Cranes, the GrayNecked WoodRail, such is the case of the Jabirus, which accmulate in large
numbers of adults and young, taking advantage in this banquet.
noon most of the country's ecosystems seem "off". Besides, April
is the month of the retiring. Thousands of neotropical migratory birds will make their
moving towards North America to begin there their reproductive period.In what respects to the resident fauna, many
mammals, reptiles and birds concentrate in the few places where there is the alimentary
resource available, some maybe varying their regular diet.
April also is characterized
by being the period of greater birth of bat species.
The Llano- April
The young of the
WoodStorks and Jabirus, which left their nests in February, concentrate around the swampy
areas to feed with the adults.
The King Vulture, which builds
its nest on the large branches of the trees, hatch their young.
The Aplomado Falcon is also busy
building its nest. It must be very lazy because it occupies nests abandoned by other
birds, as long as they are located in open places with easy access.
With May comes the water, and with them, the insects, the birds and the
amphibian sing in unison, as if they were celebrating the arrival of the resource of life.
In this month and during the next bimester the greater amount of nesting will occur in
almost all the tropic's representative ecosystems.In the Regions, the Hummingbirds fly at
amazing speeds like wanting to take nectar from every available flower in their zone of
The plains come to live at
night, owls actively hunting to feed their pigeons can be seen. The most dramatic change
occurs when the savannas get dressed with an extraordinary green color that does
not remind at all the desolation of the late drought.The rivers south of the Orinoco recover
slowly from the scarce flow they use to have. The great water falls nourish from the rains
to form huge free fall flows.
The most transcendent
event takes place in the country's great caves. There the oil bird (Steatornis Caripensis)
concentrates in numerous groups to begin their reproductive period, as well as most of the
bat species, that can be observed in their brood's birth and nursing period.
The White Capped Heron is
concentrated in groups of up to fifteen individuals. Their reproductive behavior consists
in yelling guttural calls while extending their necks vertically. This interaction between
two individuals is usually interpreted as a competition.
The mating season of the
Yellowknobbed Curassow begins. The summer flocks separate in small family groups of one
male and several females. They can be heard singing at dawn and sundown.
Chachalacas are mating.
The Great Potoo already
has one or two young. The nest is nothing more than any slight hollowness on the curve of
The Giant Anteaters have
their young. The newborn remains in the den waiting for the mother to feed it; but when it
begins to grow, it goes out to search for food riding on the back of its mother.
At this time, the
Crabeating Raccoon and the Crabeating Fox are also breeding.
There is an increase in
the number of baby monkeys.
Several species of Cassia,
such as the Bronze Shower Senna and the Shower of Gold, are in bloom.
The little red cherries of
the Barbados Cherry ripen. They are a favorite of many birds.
The young of the
"Morrocoy" Tortoise are born at this time.
The Mucovy Duck is
courting. The male moves its head rhythmically forwards and backwards at the same time it
lifts its crest, extends its neck, slightly lifts its wings and vibrates its tail. The
female responds with similar gestures.
The reproductive period of
the Green Ibis begins. It is an ibis of solitary habits which builds its nest in the
The Scarlet Ibis, on the
other hand, moves from the Llanos to the coast, where it builds its nest and then breeds.
It flies in small flocks in "V" formation.
Large flocks of Whistling
Ducks which had congregated in summer, now disperse. They build their nests on the ground
towards the end of the rainy season.
The Llano -
In June it rains all over Venezuela, this is why it is commonly
known as the "winter month" or "of the water entrance".In the plains,
and product of a more accented sedimentation from the Andes, the rivers get colored in
different tones that go from dark brown to brick red, being this haulage the ingredient
that will stimulate life in this area.
Orinoco, the beaches and sand banks disappear under the growth and the waters go back into
the shallow lagoons that are all along the great river, which will serve as a breeding
place for many fish species, which will feed from seeds and small plants that are in the
bottom of the lagoon.
The scarlet Ibis begins
moving towards the higher plains, due to a saturation of the water in the lower plains and
a greater availability of shallow waters in the high ones.
This is the season when
monkeys with newborn babies are seen most frequently.
Flooding favors the
dispersion of the Caymans towards the permanent bodies of water.
Arrival of the Forktailed
Flycatcher and the Smallbilled Elaenia from the south of South America. They come fleeing
the southern winter.
Certain Seedeaters are
nesting at this time. This fact seems to be related to the abundance of shoots from a
large group of grasses.
The breeding plumage
appears in Herons, as they concentrate to breed. Likewise, the Olivaceous Cormorant
concentrates to nest along with the Herons.
The Horned Screamer is
nesting. Its nest is a platform in the middle of large bodies of water with little
intervention and dense vegetation.
Same thing do the
Blackbellied Whistling Ducks. The couple mates in January and the nests are made in a hole
of a tree or in the soil depending on the species.
July the raining period begins. During this months, the rainfalls seem neverending, however,
in the Coastal Region and due to a particular regime, a dry period will begin and it will
last until mid September. In the bird world, the plumage of the immature, juvenile, subadult
and adult get confused all over. The great number of pigeons actively looking for seeds,
fruits or an insect represent an identification challenge for the observer.
plains are saturated with water. Now the general animal behavior is oriented towards the
search of the few dry places such as a high branch of a gallery forest, medium height
mountains or even the "bank from the plains".
The Llano - July
"Viudita Acuática" begins to prepare the nest all along the bodies of water.
The structures look like a small balloon hanging from its side and built with the soft
parts of plants and small feathers.
The nesting period of the Pionío
WoodStorks begins. This consists in a one meter diameter platform in a tree top of a naked
tree next to a mata. It is probable to find nesting of three or four nests per group. Both
adults participate in the process.
The reproductive period of many
other species brings along a changing in the plumage, such is the case of the Reznera
Heron whose yellow big feathers in the back indicate the beginning of that moment.
The guire duck moves towards
"the sticks" of the flooded forest areas to allow the reproductive period, as
well as the Hoitzin, whose segregation in couples indicates the proximity of such a
The Greater Ani is nesting. It
forms family groups of 3 to 5 individuals.
The young of the Greater
Longnosed Armadillo are born at this time.
The Crabeating Raccoon and the
Crabeating Fox are also giving birth at this time.
The Herons of the Egretta,
Casmerodius and Ardea genera begin to incubate their eggs.
The Sungrebe is nesting. It has
the peculiar ability of carrying its young under its wings.
The Blackcrowned NightHeron is
also nesting, forming its own small colonies.
Likewise, the Barefaced Ibis
nests at this time. It prefers to do it in relatively large groups, in thorn bushes or
palm concentrations on the savanna.
During August, the beaches of the Caribbean serve as a scenery for the
arrival of migratory shorebirds of North America. These birds concentrate around the coastal
damp areas where, among Flamingos and Herons, they feed from the rich fauna of the salty
The Plains and in the rest of the country a great silence is felt all the time. With a
good weather for
the breeding, and the ending of the reproductive period, most of the birds
seem to rest from the active months with a silent behavior.
The Llano -
The lonely Jabirus
constructs a huge platform in a tree with easy access. That indicates that the
reproductive period begins, being both adults participants of the event.
The Gray Tinamou becomes
more numerous in the lower plains. These birds follow the flooding pattern of the Great
Orinoco River basin.
Nesting period of the
White Capped Heron, the Blue Hen and the Brown Heron, as well as the common Cacique.
are Ibises that move throughout the gallery forest with material to construct their nest.
The flocks of Crested
Bobwhites completely disperse to breed, build their nests and incubate their eggs.
The young of the Greater
Ani abandon their nests.
The Giant River Otters
begin their reproductive period.
The Bronze Shower Senna is
loaded with the seedpods of its fruit.
The Caymans begin to build
The females of the
Brazilian Duck, a species exclusively from South America, are incubating their eggs.
The Llano -
is the best month for the watching of frogs and toads. A ride along any damp area would be
impressive because of the quantity of singing and croaking at dusk and dawn.The birds begin the
formation of "flocks of mixed species".
In the plains any mata surrounded by water serves as rookery for the
nesting. During the following months its a spectacle watching how these
"maternities" begin leaving their space for the reproduction of waders. This
process will last until the endings of December.
The nesting season
of the Whitefaced Whistling Duck begins.
The Wattled Jacana begins
The Yellowrumped Cacique,
an icterid with brilliant yellow and black plumage, is nesting in its long sacks woven
with grasses and twigs.
The Giant River Otters
give birth to their young.
The new leaves of the
Cassia begin to sprout.
The hatching period of the
Herons ends. This process began in August.
Nesting season of the
Rufescent TigerHeron in the gallery forest.
The Graynecked WoodRail
can be seen with its young in the gallery forest.
is the month of the visits and the ending of the rains in the plains, where the rain falls
are now sporadic during noon. Regarding the visits, the arrival from the Northern hemisphere of
bird flocks searching for a refuge towards the south. One can see them crossing the lower
areas of the Regions to continue their pass towards South America. At least some 70 species
of birds, that include Shorebirds, Gulls, Swallows, Songbirds and Hawks lodge in the
ecosystems of our country or pass through them on their way to
warm areas of the tropic.The gallery forest disguises of nests of different sizes. Platforms
with sticks, gramine balls and feathers, bags hanging in an exposed branch and even fifty
centimeters diameter platforms of dry sticks in the lower branches of the bushes. When in
the interior of this last one two white color eggs can be observed, that indicates the
presence of the Rufescent TigerHeron.
The Llano - October
Cayman is a reptile that zealously takes care of its nest. This consists in leaves and
decomposing material that when it degrades it liberates energy through the heat,
benefiting in this way the hatching of the eggs. This nest is zealously watched by the
The Helmeted Curassow makes its
nest cleaning the soil of gramines in the "bank". Usually this nest contains two
kakicolored eggs with dark spots. Once the eggs bloom, the adults will protect their
pigeons through movements that call the attention of the predator to drive away the
The Gray Tinamou moves with up to
five pigeons, who have a dark brown plumage with yellow spots in the face.
The last nests of the Hoitzin are
observed all along the gallery forest in the basin of the Orinoco.
The peak of the nesting of the
Buffnecked Ibis happens, while the Pionio WoodStorks is already advanced. They can be
observed shepherding the savannas near to the nest in groups of up to even eight adults
and more than eleven juveniles.
The Whitefaced Whistling Duck is
The Cedar begins to flower.
The eggs of the Cayman begin to
hatch, as well as those of the Anaconda.
The courting and mating season of
the Orinoco Crocodile begins.
November is known as the month of the lowering, even when the dry season
begins in the whole country, in some areas isolated patterns continue.
plains the water begins to stop and the damp areas begin to dry gradually, being this a
process that ends in April. However, this soil continues to receive an important flow of
those rivers that pour their waters through the eastern side of the Andean Region.
The Llano - November
"Guayabita", a tree from the gallery forest, is full of fruits which are
digested by the Yellowknobbed Curassow, who at the same time acts as a dispersing agent.
The movement of the Scarlet Ibis
towards the lower plains begins.
Considering as a successful
reproductive strategy, the WoodStork concentrates by hundreds in the rookeries to begin
the reproductive period. That space has already been used before by the Capped Heron, the
Blue Hen during previous months.
The eggs of the Anaconda or Water
Snake (Eunectes Murinus) bloom, which are within the female in a pseudoplacenta. This bag
may carry up to 82 babies.
The waters begin to
"lower", which forces many species from damp areas to move towards the Orinoco
The Pygmy Kingfisher moves from
the gallery forest to the exterior heading towards the beginning of any stream where the
hunting of small fish is more effective.
End of the breeding season for
the WhiteFaced WhistlingDuck.
The Salmwood or Spanish Elm, a
tree of excellent wood, begins to flower.
End of the breeding season for
the Crested Bobwhite. Adults and their young are beginning to form flocks.
The migration of the Ibis towards
the coast begins. Their arrival in the twilight and their departure from the roost in the
morning are spectacular.
During this season, the Giant
Anteater is in the nursing period. Occasionally a female can be observed crossing the
plain with its young on her back.
The communities of bats are
formed mostly by adults at this time.
The eggs of the Cayman hatch
until December. They begin to concentrate in permanent bodies of water where they will
remain during the dry season.
December is famous for bringing in the cold. This happens because of the
arrival of the soft trade winds, which move from the East towards the West, or said in other
way, in the opposite direction of the great rivers as the Orinoco and the Apure.In the high areas
the temperature lowers significantly in the early morning. In the plains the dry season or
"summer" has already begun, and with it, the regular processes of this time of the
year are showing: the floggings go away, the Savanna's grasses turn yellow and the water
fauna begins to feel the radical changes in the bodies of water.
November the different migratory warblers may be found in the mountain forests. For many
hunting birds this month marks the beginning of the courting and reproduction period, while
some aquatic birds are initiating their process of flying with their babies.
The lower forests seem drier everyday and
the falling of the leaves from the deciduous trees speeds up.
The Llano - December
Llano´s Sideneck is mating.
With the retreat of the waters,
the Scarlet Ibises migrate slowly from the high Llanos to the low Llanos.
Tortoises are building their nests throughout the gallery forests.
The Ceiba begins to lose leaves
to allow the flowering.
The eggs of the Caymans hatch.
The adults begin to concentrate in the permanent bodies of water.
End of the molting season and
beginning of the mating season of the Orinoco Goose. At the beginning of this period,
males have violent fights and make a terrible racket, while the females remain at a
distance. This is the only Venezuelan goose and it forms a pair for life.
Peak nesting period of the
Buffnecked Ibis in the "matas" (isolated patches of forest) of the Llano.
Beginning of the molting period
of the Blackbellied WhistlingDuck, remaining unable to fly during two or three weeks. At
this time they are easily attacked by Hawks and Caracaras.
Arrival of migrations of
Bluewinged Teals, which is the only North American duck that regularly migrates to the