the mountain Regions the lack of rain is also
felt. At the foot of these mountains the
defoliation process begins as moisture saving
of the plants to avoid an excessive
evapotranspiration, this occurs in the
deciduous forest. This phenomenon favors the
use of scarce resources to allow the
reproduction of many vegetable species, which
becomes the best moment to watch the arboreal
this month, the rains stop and the chill
strikes. With the stopping of the rains, the
flow of rivers and streams has reduced
little by little in such a way that the
flooded lowlands has receded and the wild
fauna began to move and concentrate around
lowering in the flow of many rivers allows
the gallery forests to be more easily
explored, making that many animal species
move into it.
Orchid Tree is in bloom. It has beautiful flowers,
similar to the orchid.
is the end of the flowering season of the White
Frangipani. This is a plant of xerophitic zones,
and its white flower contrast with the dry and
arid image of these lands.
warm areas, the Wild Cotton opens the buds of its
splendid yellow flowers.
mating season of the Highland Tinamou begins.
During this time, its song can be frequently heard
at a distance, with a strong and grave sound,
proclaiming its name, "cuero, cuero"
(for its name in Spanish).
Immortelles, common in the mountains of the
Coastal Region because they are the favorite shade
for coffee and cocoa plantations, begin to flower.
When they are in bloom, they are also favorites of
birdwatchers, since their flowers attract all
kinds of tanagers, hummingbirds and others.
Lignum Vitae and other species of the deciduous
forest begin to flower.
Ceiba, with its crown standing out over the forest
canopy, grows in lowlying areas and slopes. The
flowering of this majestic tree begins around this
time. The flowers open at night, for the benefit
of bats, which are its main pollinating agent.
the deforested slopes of the hills, the pink
sprigs of the "Capin Melao" sway. This
is a grass, which colonizes intervened areas.
quantities of small yellow and oRegion butterflies
of the Eurema sp. genus, can be seen on the edges
of rivers which are drying out. Likewise, the
Phyciodes claudima butterflies, bright oRegion
with black borders and extremely restless, can be
also seen perched on the sandy soil timidly
sipping the salts left by the drying water.
is the month to watch the birds of the forests
that are adjacent with the moor. Early in the
morning and before the sun rays rise the
temperature, is a spectacle to get into those
"midget" forests searching for the
wonders that the nature offers
the plains, in the basin of the Orinoco, the
reduction of the levels of the water bodies
leaves great beaches uncovered, that allows
the turtles of the Podocnemis gender to use
them as their spawn place. In other places the
reptiles begin to markand defend territory,
due to the proximity of themating period.
local fauna movements become more
noticeable, besides the accumulation of
waters to locate those resources that form
their diet. On the other hand, in many high
mountain areas the weather is still
relatively humid , due to the ascent and
condensation of the air masses that rise
from the lowlands and favor the forming of
mixed bird flocks to locate their nourishing
of these territories the great water falls
are more evident and with less flow. The big
leaves plants will lose those that because
of their antiquity must leave the work of
the photosynthesis to the younger ones.
Region - February
dusk, from the endings of February to the
endings of March, you may listen to the
Bandtailed Guan yelling the territorial scream.
This consists in an acute moan that finishes in
a series of three or four dry screams. It does
it accompanied by a heavy and sonorous flapping
when it moves from one branch to the other.
Whitetipped Quetzal (Pharomacrus fulgidus) is
active yelling a variation of its regular
singing. It is in the time of courting.
species of the deciduous forests, such as the
Pink Poui, The Inmortelle, the Bronze Shower
Senna and the Jaracandas, bloom; the Red Howler
Monkey can be seen on these flowered trees.
species of the deciduous forest, such as the
Pink Poui, the Immortelle, the Bronze Shower
Senna and the Jacarandas, are in bloom.
the cloud forests, the Whitetipped Quetzal is
courting and its characteristic song, like a
moan, can be heard. It is the only time of the
year when it allows itself to be seen.
Groovebilled Toucanet, a toucan endemic to our
Coastal Region, is also courting.
SwallowTanagers come from the jungles of the
south of Venezuela to nest and breed their young
in the high parts of the Region. Many nest in
holes in the walls of Rancho Grande biological
station in the Henri Pittier national park.
species looking for a mate is the Helmeted
Curassow. This bird needs help because it is
endangered. To define and defend its territory,
the males emit their call, a short and deep
sound which rumbles through the forest.
Wingbarred Manakin also marks territory using
of the showiest butterflies, the Papilio thoas,
appears at this time. Its main feature is the
prolongation of its lower wings into tails. Its
contrasting colors, black with rows of yellow
spots, gives it a unique character. Its flight
is fast and sinuous. It likes sunny days and
flowers, of course, particularly those from
citrus plants. Groups of males can be frequently
seen in the puddles drinking water and salts
produced by evaporation. It seems that males
need these salts for their courtship dances.
Females like to fly around the tops of the
hills. Once fertilized, they change their habits
and seek the underbrush to lay their eggs in
thistle plants. Males choose to dominate the
hilltops in order to copulate more frequently.
The contest takes place during a spiral flight
until the intruder decides to leave.
is the peak month of what is known in the
plains as "summer". Throughout this
period scarce precipitation is registered all
along the country, which forces to an intense
defoliation of the vegetable species including
those in the cloudy forest. That leaf carpet
determines a greater concentration of bugs on
the floor, because in the canopy the excess of
light and radiation do not allow the
development of a rich life.
the whole Venezuela the fauna restricts its
activities to the beginning of the morning,
ending of the afternoon or to the night to
avoid the high temperatures that are
produced during noon.
spectacular Rose of Venezuela or Mountain Rose,
which flowers several times during the year,
begins its annual flowering period at this time.
It is a small tree which grows on the slopes of
the Guácharo Cave, in Caripe, the oilbirds are
beginning their breeding season. At sundown,
when the adults leave the cave in search of
food, it is impressive to see thousands of birds
screeching, the same way they impressed Baron
Alexander von Humboldt over a century ago.
this time, the Ornate HawkEagle flies over the
mountains with its young. The eaglet calls its
mother with a repeated shriek.
Leathery Turtles are laying their eggs.
Wild Chestnut, beautiful tree of widespread
ornamental use, is flowering.
Bandtailed Guan, common to these mountains, is
nesting. It can be seen searching for fruit and
seeds in the underbrush.
is the flowering season of the Mountain and
Swamp Immortelles, to the delight of birds and
insects which feed on its flowers.
the humid forests, among tree trunks and
branches, the Easter Orchid begins to bloom.
This orchid is our national flower.
Lignum Vitae loses its leaves. This tree is of
great medicinal value.
Long John is covered with fruit.
Papilio anchisiades butterflies are in
Quetzal, with its plaintive voice, announces its
courtship and breeding period.
Region - April
is the end of the drought. Many couples of
parrots and macaws must be taking care of the
hole where they will nest in the up coming
season for two months already. However, in this
month, the custody of this hole is done with
more insistence due to the proximity of the
flows of the rivers and streams are in their
lowest level, forcing many fish to go the
surface. This situation is profited by the
Cranes the Gray Cranes, the GrayNecked WoodRail,
such is the case of the Jabirus, which accmulate
in large numbers of adults and young, taking
advantage in this banquet.
many places of the country the temperature may
go higher of the 39º Celsius, reason why during
most of the country's ecosystems seem
"off". Besides, April is the month of
the retiring. Thousands of neotropical migratory
birds will make their moving towards North
America to begin there their reproductive
what respects to the resident fauna, many
mammals, reptiles and birds concentrate in the
few places where there is the alimentary
resource available, some maybe varying their
also is characterized by being the period of
greater birth of bat species.
Gray Tinamou is nesting. In this species the male
incubates the eggs.
Highland Tinamou is breeding.
Flamboyant is in flower. This tree was introduced
in the country during this century and today it
grows in all warm areas.
Geiger Tree flowers in ravines and along
American Crocodile is nesting in the coastal
lagoons and mangroves.
Slatethroated Redstart, one of the few warblers
which is not migratory, builds its nest at this
Vermilion Cardinal begins to stake out its
territory with its song.
Children", those gigantic trees which only
grow in the highest parts of the Coastal Region,
begin to bear their fruit.
is the time when the Papilios pyranthus butterfly
is most abundant.
May comes the water, and with them, the
insects, the birds and the amphibian sing in
unison, as if they were celebrating the
arrival of the resource of life. In this month
and during the next bimester the greater
amount of nesting will occur in almost all the
tropic's representative ecosystems.
the Regions, the Hummingbirds fly at amazing
speeds like wanting to take nectar from every
available flower in their zone of forage.
plains come to live at night, owls actively
hunting to feed their pigeons can be seen. The
most dramatic change occurs when the savannas
get dressed with an extraordinary green color
remind at all the desolation of the late
rivers south of the Orinoco recover slowly
from the scarce flow they use to have. The
great water falls nourish from the rains to
form huge free fall flows.
most transcendent event takes place in the
country's great caves. There the oil bird
(Steatornis Caripensis) concentrates in
numerous groups to begin their reproductive
period, as well as most of the bat species,
that can be observed in their brood's birth
and nursing period.
Region - May
African Tulip Tree flowers.
Papilios pyranthus butterfly, which lays its eggs
between April and May, is abundant.
June it rains all over Venezuela, this is why
it is commonly known as the "winter
month" or "of the water
along the Caribbean coast the sea turtles
begin their spawn period, being this an
ancestral behavior of the surviving species.
the plains, and product of a more accented
sedimentation from the Andes, the rivers get
colored in different tones that go from dark
brown to brick red, being this haulage the
ingredient that will stimulate life in this
up North it rains everyday, in the South it
whole day. Guayana is a sole scream of adult
and young parrots and macaws directing to
the sleeping and eating places. Whit this
begins the dispersion of many species to the
areas distant from the damp areas. Now there
is water everywhere.
the Orinoco, the beaches and sand banks
disappear under the growth and the waters go
back into the shallow lagoons that are all
along the great river, which will serve as a
breeding place for many fish species, which
will feed from seeds and small plants that
are in the bottom of the lagoon.
Region - June
Leathery Turtle is laying its eggs.
Strangler Fig loses its leaves. This species
begins as a parasite of other trees and can end up
being one of the giants of the forest.
Papilio astyalus, cleotas, androgeus and
anchisiades butterflies become particularly
House Wren, a nice little bird common to populated
areas, usually nests in houses and buildings.
Papilios pyranthus butterflies can be observed
Rothschildia jacobae Moth appears at night. Some
individuals can have a wing span of up to 20 cm.
butterfly found frequently at this time is the
Papilio xanthopleura, one of the largest. The male
is dark brown, with a row of yellow spots on the
upper wings. The females are totally different,
both in shape and color. These butterflies like
the flowers of citrus plants and their flight is
July the raining period begins. During this
months, the rainfalls seem neverending,
however, in the Coastal Region and due to a
particular regime, a dry period will begin and
it will last until mid September.
the bird world, the plumage of the immature,
juvenile, subadult and adult get confused all
over. The great number of pigeons actively
looking for seeds, fruits or an insect
represent an identification challenge for the
the plains and Guayana are saturated with
water. Now the general animal behavior is
oriented towards the search of the few dry
places such as a high branch of a gallery
forest, medium height mountains or even the
"bank from the plains".
Andes are filled with life. The lands from the
"páramos" show gorgeous colors due
to the greater period of flowering, that is
why it is common to see Hummingbirds
(Trochilidae), Spinetails (Furnatidae) and
Thrushes (Turdidae), actively moving among the
another place, in the Coastal Region occurs
one of the most beautiful butterfly
migrations. In the natural migratory areas,
dozens of individuals of the Pieridae family
can be seen. In the Arahuaca tongue these
butterflies were called Taras, which means
yellow or oRegion, clearly making allusion to
its most outstanding characteristic. This name
is still used.
Region - July
young of the American Crocodile are born.
marine turtles, such as the Leathery Turtle and
the Green Turtle, lay their eggs.
Rosebreasted ThrushTanagers have formed pairs
and sing actively defending their territory.
LongTailed Sylph is nesting all along the
Dwarf Palm, endemic to the Coastal Region, is
flowering, as well as the Holy Palm, the leaves
of which are those sought by the
"Palmeros" (palm collectors) in El Ávila
national park for the celebration of Palm
butterflies are particularly abundant, such as
the Papilio pyranthus, astyalus, cleotas,
androgeus, erithalion, anchisiades and the
Dusky Mouse Opossum, a small arboreal mammal
which lives in the cloud forest, has its young.
to French entomologist Theophile Raymond, who
visited Venezuela at the beginning of the
century, the Papilio torquatus orchamus
butterfly would appear in Caracas around these
August, the beaches of the Caribbean serve
as a scenery for the arrival of migratory
shorebirds of North America. These birds
concentrate around the coastal damp areas
where, among Flamingos and Herons, they feed
from the rich fauna of the salty waters.
Guayana and in the rest of the country a
great silence is felt all the time. With a
good weather for
breeding, and the ending of the reproductive
period, most of the birds seem to rest from
the active months with a silent behavior.
the other hand, in the Western coast of
Venezuela, in Falcón State, a short rain
Region - August
Scarletfronted Parakeets arrive at the lowlying
areas of the Coastal Region. The songs of these
parakeets are characteristic screeches. They
feed in large flocks, and sometimes they descend
on fruit or corn plantations.
Caligo illioneus butterfly is abundant at this
time. Its wings have two large circular spots
which resemble the eyes of an owl. It is said
that this is to drive away the possible
Milk Thistle and the "Macanilla" Palm,
which grows in large colonies, bear fruit.
breeding season of the Ninebanded Armadillo
begins. It differs from its fellow species of
the Llano in that it lives almost exclusively in
SwallowTanagers have finished raising their
young, and flocks can be seen returning towards
the south of Venezuela.
Papilio anchisiades butterfly is very abundant.
butterflies of the Papilio sp., Ascia monuste
monuste and several others form their
chrysalises to emerge during the month of
August; while those that formed chrysalises in
October emerge in May of the following year.
is the best month for the watching of frogs
and toads. A ride along any damp area would be
impressive because of the quantity of singing
and croaking at dusk and dawn.
birds begin the formation of "flocks of
the plains any mata surrounded by water serves
as rookery for the nesting. During the
following months its a spectacle watching how
these "maternities" begin leaving
their space for the reproduction of waders.
This process will last until the endings of
Region - Region
"Chiquichiqui" or "Mucuteño"
begins to flower.
Osprey begins to arrive in our country searching
for fishing territories where to spend the
winter, and scattering around rivers, lakes and
in the Andes, birds which have already finished
their nesting in the Region form mixed feeding
Green Turtle is laying its eggs.
Handsome Fruiteater, one of our most spectacular
endemic birds, can be frequently observed as it
feeds on small fruit in the cloud forest.
Children" remain in flower.
flowering of the "Molinillo" cane.
flocks of Barn Swallows can be seen arriving
from North America.
is the month of the visits and the ending of
the rains in the plains, where the rain falls
are now sporadic during noon.
the visits, the arrival from the Northern
hemisphere of bird flocks searching for a
refuge towards the south. One can see them
crossing the lower areas of the Regions to
continue their pass towards South America. At
least some 70 species of birds, that include
Shorebirds, Gulls, Swallows, Songbirds and
Hawks lodge in the ecosystems of our country
or pass through them on their way to
warm areas of the tropic.
gallery forest disguises of nests of
different sizes. Platforms with sticks,
gramine balls and feathers, bags hanging in
an exposed branch and even fifty centimeters
diameter platforms of dry sticks in the
lower branches of the bushes. When in the
interior of this last one two white color
eggs can be observed, that indicates the
presence of the Rufescent TigerHeron.
Region - October
Northern Waterthrush begins to arrive from North
America. This bird likes to frequent swampy areas
and wetlands, and it is easily recognized by its
short and repetitive call.
eggs of the Green Turtle are about to hatch.
Heliconius erato butterfly becomes particularly
abundant. This genus is generally formed by
individuals with highcontrasting colors.
Avocado Tree begins to flower. Along with corn,
the tomato and the potato, it is one of the plants
originating in America which has become widespread
throughout the world.
is known as the month of the lowering, even
when the dry season begins in the whole
country, in some areas isolated patterns
continue. In the Venezuelan Eastern coast it
rains, in the Andes during the morning the
atmosphere will be cleaner, and in the plains
almost the whole savanna seems flooded, but
without so much precipitation.
the Coastal Region, the ascent and
condensation of the masses of air favors the
lasting of regular rains in the cloudy forest.
In the Andes the rains
later than the rest of the ecosystems.
the plains the water begins to stop and the
damp areas begin to dry gradually, being
this a process that ends in April. However,
this soil continues to receive an important
flow of those rivers that pour their waters
through the eastern side of the Andean
Region - November
White Frangipani, common in xerophytic areas, is
flocks of mixed passerine species can be observed
moving through the forests. The most common
families are the woodcreepers, ovenbirds,
spinetails and foliagegleaners, certain species of
flycatchers, peppershrikes, vireos and greenlets
is the peak flowering season and the end of the
fruiting season for the gigantic trees which the
local people call "The Children" which
grow in the cloud forest.
false palms are beginning to renew their leaves.
is the mating season for eagles and hawks which
live at the higher elevations. These are mainly
the White Hawk, the Ornate HawkEagle, the Black
HawkEagle and the Solitary Eagle.
Wattled Jacana begins its nesting season which
lasts until December. In this species, the family
is a matriarchy and it is the male who takes care
of the eggs.
Geonoma simplifrons palm, endemic to the Coastal
Region, flowers and bears fruit.
flowering season for the Cupey begins. This
contributes to the abundance of hummingbirds which
feed on its flowers.
of the Coconut Palm along Venezuelan coasts
is famous for bringing in the cold. This
happens because of the arrival of the soft
trade winds, which move from the East towards
the West, or said in other way, in the
opposite direction of the great rivers as the
Orinoco and the Apure.
the high areas the temperature lowers
significantly in the early morning. In the
plains the dry season or "summer"
has already begun, and with it, the regular
processes of this time of the year are
showing: the floggings go away, the Savanna's
grasses turn yellow and the water fauna begins
to feel the radical changes in the bodies of
November the different migratory warblers
may be found in the mountain forests. For
many hunting birds this month marks the
beginning of the courting and reproduction
period, while some aquatic birds are
initiating their process of flying with
lower forests seem drier everyday and the
falling of the leaves from the deciduous
trees speeds up.
Region - December
White Frangipani flowers. This is a shrub which
grows among xerophytic vegetation in coastal
Palebreasted Spinetails sing along the streams.
Cupey flowers. Its fruit will later attract many
parrots and parakeets, including the Spectacular
of Whitetipped Quetzals can be seen flying through
the forest in search of food.